They grow high and low, bushy and small, have colored blossoms, are multicolored, from mild to hot - Chilies! Find products and information to the numerous chilli varieties - Brought together by chilli lovers!
Pepperoni varieties - Or species of the genus Capsicum
Only by genus and species it is hardly to give information about the fruit or the spiceness of the respective chillies and peppers, as there is a huge diversity of varieties with the most diverse characteristics. Nevertheless, there are some characteristics that distinguish the different species from each other.
The following five species of the genus Capsicum are the best known and most commonly cultivated:
The Capsicum annuum L. exists in many varieties, such as Capsicum annuum 'De Arbol', Capsicum annuum 'Cayenne', Capsicum annuum 'Dutch Orange' and many more, and is also divided into different groups:
- The Cerasiforme-group (Cherry Pepper)
- The Conioides-group. (Cone Pepper)
- The Fasciculatum-group. (Red Cone Pepper)
- The Grossum-group. (Bell Pepper, Pimento, Sweet Pepper)
- The Longum-group. (Cayenne Pepper, Chili Pepper)
The Capsicum frutescens L. is a spicies that also includes numerous varieties, such as Capsicum frutescens 'Tabasco' and Capsicum frutescens 'Malagueta'. However, there is no additional subdivision into different groups for this species.
The species name chinense comes from an error made. In fact, we thought for a long time that this variety war originated in China, because the botanist Jacquin had bought the plant from a Chinese trader and named it after him. Later, however, it turned out that the Capsicum chinense Jacq. originated in South America.
Capsicum pubescens is the least common of these five. It owes its name to the hairy shoot and leaves of this pepper, because pubescens means "hairy". Since it originates from the Andes, it is more tolerant of cold than most other species, but not as frost hardy as is often claimed.
Other species that are less important:
- Capsicum caballeroi Nee
- Capsicum campylopodium Sendt.
- Capsicum cardenasii Heiser et Smith
- Capsicum ceratocalyx Nee
- Capsicum chacoense Hunz.
- Capsicum coccineum (Rusby) Hunz.
- Capsicum cornutum (Hiern) Hunz.
- Capsicum dimorphum (Miers) O.K.
- Capsicum eximium Hunz.
- Capsicum flexuosum Sendt.
- Capsicum friburgense Barboza et Bianchetti
- Capsicum galapagoense Hunz.
- Capsicum geminifolium (Dammer) Hunz.
- Capsicum hookerianum (Miers) O.K.
- Capsicum hunzikerianum Barboza et Bianchetti
- Capsicum lanceolatum (Greenm.) Morton et Standley
- Capsicum mirabile Mart. ex. Sendt.
- Capsicum parvifolium Sendt.
- Capsicum pereirae Barboza et Bianchetti
- Capsicum praetermissum Heiser et Smith
- Capsicum recurvatum Witas.
- Capsicum rhomboideum (Dunal) Kuntze
- Capsicum schottianum Sendt.
- Capsicum scolnikianum Hunz.
- Capsicum tovarii Eshbaugh, Smith et Nickrent
- Capsicum villosum Sendt.
They are actually only listed as wild forms most of them allow no crossbreeding. For this reason, there are also no variety of breeds here.
Most of the known varieties are derived from the cultivation of the 5 most common chilli pepper species mentioned above. Their flavour and the pungency they contain vary from variety to variety.
How hot is which kind of chilli?
The pungency of chillies is measured in Scoville Heat Unis (SHC) and the name of this measurement is scoville scale. The SHU value represents the amount of capsaicin found in the fruit. This molecule is responsible for the sensation of sharpness.
You can find out more about capsaicin and its effect on the body here.
The Scolville scape ranges in sharpness from 0 (no sharpness) to 16 million (pure capsaicin).
If you want to know more about Wilbur Scoville and the sharpness scale, you can find out more here
||Habanero Red Savina, Habanero Francisca, Naga Jolokia, Naga Morich
||350.000 - 500.000
||Habanero, Yellow Bumpy, Scotch Bonnet, Madame Jeannette, Fatalii
||100.000 - 350.000
||Rocoto, Piri Piri, Pequin, Malagueta, Inca Berry, Long Purple Cayenne
||50.000 - 100.000
||Thai, Cayenne, Tabasco, Assam, Kung Pao, Little Black Beauty, Canario
||30.000 - 50.000
||De Arbol, Brazilian Starfish, Sarit Gat, Sibirischer Hauspaprika, Criolla Sella
||15.000 - 30.000
||Aji Amarillo, Aji Angelo, Peter Pepper, Fire Cracker, Serrano, Renate
||5.000 - 15.000
||Jalapeno, Halblanger Vulkan, Bishops Crown, Civitella, Bulgarian Carrot
||2.500 - 5.000
||Cascabel, Turuncu Spiral, Laos Finest, Black Hungarian, Gorria
||1.500 - 2.500
||Ancho, Bressepaprika, Dutch Orange, Mulato, Pasilla, Espanola, Alma Paprika
||1.000 - 1.500
||Anaheim, NuMex Big Jim, Indonesia, Aji Brazilian Red Olive, Poblano
||0 - 1.000
||Cherry (mild), Baby Bell, Aji Dulce Amarillo, Aconcagua
||Medusa, Banana Sweet, Cubanelle, Feher, all vegetable peppers